Mixing Explained Article

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Denis van der Velde
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Mixing Explained Article

Post by Denis van der Velde »

For all you need to stay home for corona...

I created a large article about the art of mixing :

http://www.sined.nl/index.php/audio-inf ... c-mixing-i

www.sined.nl
:D :D :D :D :D :D

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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by Denis van der Velde »

Sorry about the bad link in the german forum, corrected that.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by moggs »

Wow! Very detailed and comprehensive. Many thanks for sharing.

Jonathan

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Re: Mixing Explained Article

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moggs wrote:
Wed Apr 01, 2020 12:56 am
Wow! Very detailed and comprehensive. Many thanks for sharing.

Jonathan
Thx! :D :D :D :D :D :D
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by chikitin »

Thank you! It is a complete book, just saved it to my hard disk for reference!
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by Denis van der Velde »

chikitin wrote:
Sun Apr 05, 2020 12:44 am
Thank you! It is a complete book, just saved it to my hard disk for reference!
Yes it was written and kept up to date for a longer time...
Thx!

:D :D :D
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by Denis van der Velde »

I have updated the Basic Mixing tutorial. :D :D :D :D :D
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by Denis van der Velde »

Welcome to read the complete mixing tutorial...
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

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Denis van der Velde wrote:
Mon May 25, 2020 12:24 pm
Welcome to read the complete mixing tutorial...
Nope, nothing to read or download at the site.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

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mr.roos wrote:
Thu Jun 25, 2020 11:46 pm
Denis van der Velde wrote:
Mon May 25, 2020 12:24 pm
Welcome to read the complete mixing tutorial...
Nope, nothing to read or download at the site.
They are here: http://www.sined.nl/index.php/audio-inf ... c-mixing-i
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by Stephen57 »

Thank you for sharing this here. I skimmed it over, but will returned to read in detail. :-)
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

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Denis van der Velde wrote:
Sun Mar 29, 2020 11:24 am
For all you need to stay home for corona...

I created a large article about the art of mixing :

http://www.sined.nl/index.php/audio-inf ... c-mixing-i

www.sined.nl
:D :D :D :D :D :D

Denis
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Thank you for an excellent article. There are a few editorial corrections you might want to make to some words and sentences. You use "Base" when you mean "Bass" in almost every instance. Also, in the Mix and Swing section it seems some words are missing from some sentences.

Anyway, again, thank you for writing a very helpful, informative article. I'm still reading it carefully, learning some new things and reviewing basic concepts you cover. Great job, with a few corrections it will be an A+ article.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by Denis van der Velde »

Thank you, i will correct some words, but it has been an accumulation of me being dutch and spelling conrol all the time.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by chikitin »

A table of content would be great. It is interesting that in mixing folks always label the depth dimension ( reverb delay) as dimension 3 and it makes sense mixes are treating the that order! Mathematically ( 3D geometry or Calculus III),

for image here for example.

Dim 1 - depth (x)
Dim 2- Panaroma ( y)
Dim 3 - freq. spectrum.

Editorial suggestions:
1. Table of content ( preferably with hyper link)
2. organizing the text with the section and/chapters bold and maybe larger fonts.
3. Label images/tables and have clear explanation in the text. There are images without explaitions.

I love the way you have details of almost everything.

I assume your text is written for someone who has not mix at all and want to start. There are terms/techniques such as parallel compression, ducking (in the section: Why does my mix sound so muddy?) that would be nice to have a separate sections for them.

Thanks again for making this available to public.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by worshiptuned »

Thank you to share your article,
there are some good ideas, I liked many explanations and your articles are useful.
There are also questionable ideas about gain staging...To put a limiter on the master bus while mixing is pretty odd. And you suggest -0.3dB, but most authors say that the correct limit is -1dB for the best sound quality. The limiter is used usually in mastering. In mixing it is used in the master track only the compressor to glue the mix instead
You suggest that anything should be under -3 dB. Most contemporary authors suggest that single tracks don't go above -6dB (some say also less!) in order then when the many tracks are summing up in the master track the overall level should never exceed -1dB and it is very good if the peaks on the master tracks are under-6dB. This produces a better sound quality and help to judge better the song. You miss to explain that 0db digital = -24dB analog. There is not need of a limiter on the master track but only the use of proper gain staging, compression of the tracks and master bus compression. In order to master and give to a mastering engineer the best would be to give him the mix with the maximum peaks no more then -6dB in order there is enough headroom to master. They say that the tracks should have a gain between -24 and -12dB with peaks that don't exceed -6dB.
It is very questionable also the rule of the need to set the master fader to 0dB. Because internal clipping occurs if the single tracks are clipping, and if peaks of the single tracks of the projects are under -6dB and peaks of the master bus are under 0, then the master fader can be up or down....The dynamic range doesn't change so much in the digital domain.
This misconceptions leads to the errors to try to reach the O dB while recording tracks on digital systems, with the aim to have more dynamyc range, which is totally wrong. And a mix that on the master bus is always close to 0db, which is not good at all for sound clarity.

Thank anyway for your job which was useful

I am not such an expert but these guys know what they say:
https://www.soundonsound.com/techniques ... w-software

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Re: Mixing Explained Article

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worshiptuned wrote:
Mon Jul 27, 2020 4:31 pm
it is very good if the peaks on the master tracks are under-6dB. This produces a better sound quality
There's no reason why sound quality should improve when peaks on the master are below -6dBFS as opposed to -1dBFS. None.
worshiptuned wrote:
Mon Jul 27, 2020 4:31 pm
You miss to explain that 0db digital = -24dB analog.
Not sure what you mean by that. There is no standard for digital to equal a particular level once converted to analog.
worshiptuned wrote:
Mon Jul 27, 2020 4:31 pm
In order to master and give to a mastering engineer the best would be to give him the mix with the maximum peaks no more then -6dB in order there is enough headroom to master. They say that the tracks should have a gain between -24 and -12dB with peaks that don't exceed -6dB.
Mastering engineers don't need peaks to be below -6dBFS for the purpose of having "headroom". I'm willing to bet that in 99% of all mastering that's done to at least popular music the track will be made louder, and the range between average and peak will be reduced. Because of this there's really no need for headroom since generally the difference between peak and average won't increase.

But even if that was the case the mastering engineer can easily solve any lack of headroom by simply lowering the track before processing. It takes about 1 second to do so and there is virtually zero loss in the process.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by worshiptuned »

thanks for the answer,

the reasons of the equivalence 0dB analog=-24dB digital are explained in detail in the link I posted it is a matter of how the meters are set in the daw and in the analog gear.
Image
https://www.soundonsound.com/techniques ... w-software

About the mix done at -6 -3dB it is an advice found on many sources. If all that the mastering engineer has to do is to lower the volume of the mix, I don't understand why mastering engineers complain so much about the lack of headroom in mixes they receive, and even refuse mixes for that!

https://en.audiofanzine.com/recording-m ... rtant.html

it happens that even if in our DAW there is not clipping and nothing goes above 0, during the digital to analog conversion process there is clipping (inter sample peaks) ...

https://www.productionmusiclive.com/blo ... hey-matter

You are right there is not better sound quality in -6dB then -1dB. I was wrong and I didn't explained correctly my point. When you pass -1dB we enter the dangerous zone of inter sample peaks. then leaving more headroom it is just to leave a bigger safety zone from the dangerous zone
and experience teaches that when I aim for -3db I often end up louder...If then you realize you are too loud, there is no more room for EQ or to raise the volume of a track, a vocal for example. And you have during mixing to lower the volume of all your channels...it is not 1 second!
This is why the advice to keep the levels low makes sense to me. There is no need to go close to 0 and there is no need to make the mastering engineer to waste a second of his time.

in the site of Waves plugins they have this on mastering:

"Start with Sufficient Headroom

The second golden rule – actually, a corollary to the first one – is: Always leave yourself sufficient headroom. Most plugins – especially those that model analog equipment – are designed to work at around a particular input level range, and that range definitely does not include peaks at zero. A good rule of thumb is to keep steady signals such as rhythm guitars, synths or pads at somewhere between -20 and -16 dBFS, with transient peaks (such as occur from drums and percussive instruments) no higher than -6 dBFS."

Then summing up: approaching the -1dB 0dB we are approaching the "limit" zone, where things mess up. Plugins are on their stress zone, inter sample peaks may occur, artifacts and distortion are more likely to happen when we export the mix... Have you ever heard about loudness war and how today everything is too loud and compressed and squashed with bad dynamics, just to approach 0dB.....both in cinema an music?https://www.soundonsound.com/techniques ... udness-war

Anyway we know...there are many different ways of thinking about mixing and mastering

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Re: Mixing Explained Article

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worshiptuned wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 12:45 pm
thanks for the answer,

the reasons of the equivalence 0dB analog=-24dB digital are explained in detail in the link I posted it is a matter of how the meters are set in the daw and in the analog gear.
Image
https://www.soundonsound.com/techniques ... w-software
Well, you did write the opposite before "0db digital = -24dB analog" rather than "0dB analog=-24dB digital".

Also, like I said, the nominal reference level (0VU) on a converter can equal anywhere from -16dBFS to -22dBFS. So there is no standard. The devices are calibrated differently.
worshiptuned wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 12:45 pm
About the mix done at -6 -3dB it is an advice found on many sources. If all that the mastering engineer has to do is to lower the volume of the mix, I don't understand why mastering engineers complain so much about the lack of headroom in mixes they receive, and even refuse mixes for that!

https://en.audiofanzine.com/recording-m ... rtant.html
In that article on gain-staging it seems to me that the author is using "dynamic range" and "headroom" interchangeably, and that's not really right I think. I think most professional engineers would agree that having too little dynamic range (if we assume that means the range between peak and average) is bad when sending stuff out to mastering. But that's different from headroom. The space between nominal operating level and the onset of distortion in analog (i.e. 0VU to distortion) is the headroom. It's 'above' something. So leaving space above the peaks (to 0dBFS) in a mix doesn't really do much since a mastering engineer can just lower the mix easily and is likely - as suggested - to diminish the range rather than extend it.

I just don't see the point in leaving for example 6dB of space as a general rule.
worshiptuned wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 12:45 pm
it happens that even if in our DAW there is not clipping and nothing goes above 0, during the digital to analog conversion process there is clipping (inter sample peaks) ...
Sure.
worshiptuned wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 12:45 pm
Then summing up: approaching the -1dB 0dB we are approaching the "limit" zone, where things mess up. Plugins are on their stress zone, inter sample peaks may occur, artifacts and distortion are more likely to happen when we export the mix... Have you ever heard about loudness war and how today everything is too loud and compressed and squashed with bad dynamics, just to approach 0dB.....both in cinema an music?
Yes, I have heard about the loudness war... It has very little to do with "-1dB" or "0dB" and everything to do with adjusting dynamics and increasing loudness.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by Stephen57 »

MattiasNYC wrote:
Tue Jul 28, 2020 8:42 pm

Yes, I have heard about the loudness war... It has very little to do with "-1dB" or "0dB" and everything to do with adjusting dynamics and increasing loudness.

Thanks for offering constructive comments here.

I'm not sure if the OP covers Crest Factor in the article? I began reading it but there were too many typos and some apparent translation issues making it impossible for me to continue. Below is a link to one article on the topic for anyone's reference, but I'd be curious to hear anything you might have to say about it. The article is from 2013 so is perhaps a bit dated in some respects.

https://www.prosoundweb.com/tech-tip-of ... mastering/

Hope all's well.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by MattiasNYC »

Hi Stephen,

I think the article is maybe dated when it talks about access to metering since I feel we have access to pretty much anything today, but other than that I agree with it and makes the same point I made. The loudness war isn't about getting close to 0dBFS but what to do with "the rest" of the signal.

I don't think the OP covers 'crest factor' since doing a search didn't find anything. I didn't read the whole thing though since I didn't care for the formatting, and quite frankly I've done this for long enough not to have time to read notes on the basics of mixing.

----

"Edit":

Since I searched for the term "average" I found the section on "Loudness Maximizer Effects.", and I don't think that it's correct to say that it is "A combined effect of gaining and compression (limiting) for the purpose of getting the most dynamic out of a mix". "most dynamic" to me implies more dynamics, and that to me is the opposite of a louder mix. Louder mixes have less dynamics the way we think of the word "loud".

The very first sentence on iZotope's page on their loudness maximizer reads: "The Loudness Maximizer allows you to create an overall louder or fuller master by limiting the dynamic range"

I think if I read the entire article I might find a few of those cases where the terminology isn't really used correctly. Could be a language barrier or whatever.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by worshiptuned »

The level of 0dB has something to do with the loudness war in my opinion. Surely is about adjusting dynamic and increasing loudness. But what to increase loudness means if not to rise up the fader and then the peaks get around -1dB and then to 0dB when distortions begin, and begin even before 0dB.
And if we continue to raise the fader of the master bus the peaks go above. Then the 0dB limit is very related to loudness war because, if we don' to go till there deliberately to obtain distortion in order to get a certain distorted sound, every time that our peaks pass that limit because we want to make things louder we enter deliberately in the distortion zone just to get things louder. As we approach that 0 the negative effects of the loudness war increase.
As many tutorials say and also the Waves website, some Plugins don't react very well with hot signals...and this is the reason why is not exactly the same thing to lower the fader of the master bus by the mastering engineer. Instead to keep things lower make sense, because this functioning of some plugins, both in the individual tracks and in the master bus, because often one applies at least a compressor on the master bus, I think it is prudent at the mixing stage to keep the levels at a lower level as waves site suggest. It makes sense because we now there is not a real advantage in approaching to 0 in terms of dynamic range, because in 24 bit digital recordings doesn’t maximize the signal to noise ratio, as explained in the following article

“The only advantage to recording with less headroom is to maximise the recording system's signal-noise ratio, but there's no point if the source's signal-noise ratio is significantly worse than the recording system's, and it will tend to be that way with most analogue synth signals, or any acoustic instrument recorded with a mic in a normal acoustic space. The analogue electronic noise floor or the acoustic ambience will completely swamp the digital recording system's noise floor anyway……Analogue equipment is designed to clip at about +24dBu, so, in other words, the system was engineered to provide around 20dB of headroom above 0VU. It's just that the metering systems we use with analogue don't show that headroom margin, so we forget it's there. Digital meters do show it, but so many people don't understand what headroom is for, and so feel the need to peak everything to the top of the meter anyway. This makes it really hard to record live performances, makes mixing needlessly challenging and stresses the analogue monitoring chain that was never designed to cope with +20dBu signal levels all the time.
By recording in a digital system with a signal level averaging around -18 or-20 dBFS, you are simply replicating the same headroom margin as was always standard in analogue systems, and that headroom margin was arrived at through 100 years of development for very good practical reasons.”
Source:
https://www.soundonsound.com/sound-advi ... -recording

there is also an interesting discussion on the forum on this subject of gain staging I mean especially the oldest posts of it
viewtopic.php?t=57467

I think Mattias you are definitely more prepared then me in all these matters and many of your objections were useful and correct. What I don’t understand is: if there is no reason to keep the tracks level low with peaks around -3 -6dB why plugin manufacturers and books and articles of production magazines give this advice? I don't have clear answers and I remain perplex on the matter. I think is just a matter of safety margins….a civil engineer knows that the concrete can resist that weight, but when is building a house it doesn’t make sense to test the limits…there are safety margins, it is a common principle of every science.

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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by MattiasNYC »

worshiptuned wrote:
Wed Jul 29, 2020 8:16 pm
The level of 0dB has something to do with the loudness war in my opinion. Surely is about adjusting dynamic and increasing loudness. But what to increase loudness means if not to rise up the fader and then the peaks get around -1dB and then to 0dB when distortions begin, and begin even before 0dB.
And if we continue to raise the fader of the master bus the peaks go above. Then the 0dB limit is very related to loudness war because, if we don' to go till there deliberately to obtain distortion in order to get a certain distorted sound, every time that our peaks pass that limit because we want to make things louder we enter deliberately in the distortion zone just to get things louder. As we approach that 0 the negative effects of the loudness war increase.
But you don't "win" the loudness war by moving your maximum sample peak to 0dBFS from -2dBFS for example. You make far bigger differences by increasing the loudness by other means. If you give it some thought it's really pretty self-explanatory: We got 16-bit CDs and they got louder and louder, but all CDs have the same maximum sample peak value of 0dBFS. This means that any loudness that we got was not by approaching 0dBFS.

I think the "proper" way to do this cleanly is to stay away from clipping to create loudness and instead create loudness through other means. Every single time I master music I stay away from 0dBFS and never have True Peak values above 0. I use a loudness maximizer to increase loudness instead.

Obviously lowering the mater fader lowers the loudness of the resulting file, but when we're talking loudness wars the assumption is that the master is close to zero and then loudness maximizing is doing the rest.
worshiptuned wrote:
Wed Jul 29, 2020 8:16 pm
As many tutorials say and also the Waves website, some Plugins don't react very well with hot signals...and this is the reason why is not exactly the same thing to lower the fader of the master bus by the mastering engineer.
1. It depends on their DAW. If the inserts are post-fader then they can just turn it down.
2. If the inserts are pre-fader then they can still lower the signal using a plugin or input trim or clip gain.

It's just not a big issue.
worshiptuned wrote:
Wed Jul 29, 2020 8:16 pm
I think it is prudent at the mixing stage to keep the levels at a lower level as waves site suggest.
But in that same Waves article they actually also write "Here’s a nice tip: Yoad Nevo often begins by inserting a Waves Q1 (a simple single-band equalizer, included as a component of the Q10 Equalizer) as the first plugin in his mastering chain, yet leaving it completely flat. He then uses its level control to lower both stereo channels by 6 dB in order to leave sufficient headroom for the other processes he’ll be adding later in the chain. You can actually use any plugin for this purpose, so long as it provides a stereo level control and does not color the sound."

Exactly what I was saying.
worshiptuned wrote:
Wed Jul 29, 2020 8:16 pm
What I don’t understand is: if there is no reason to keep the tracks level low with peaks around -3 -6dB why plugin manufacturers and books and articles of production magazines give this advice?
It's probably because first of all some people still try to record hot for no good reason, and so they get nervous when they see "only" peaks of -10dBFS or whatever and if they then start pushing toward -3/-2dBFS it's much easier to clip the input. A typical scenario is having a musician test the mic and setting levels without a decent safety margin, and then when the musician actually plays for real (when we hit "record") they end up playing louder than when you were just checking levels. So just in general it's good to not worry about recording hot and that probably means that peaks end up being in the -10 to -6dBFS range, maybe a bit higher.

The other reason is purely practical for mixing, where some people keep adding sounds and eventually the master clips. With lower peaks that happens 'later' or not at all. Of course any experienced mix engineer keeps an eye and ear open for that all the time so it's again not a big deal, and in addition to that we typically compress the dynamic range and thus lower the crest factor (lower peaks) which then means getting some of that headroom back on that channel (ignoring makeup gain for a second). So again that's possibly why.

But lastly I'll just say again, in different words: People have to be a bit more attentive when reading those articles and guides because sometimes it looks like they're saying one thing but they really aren't. There's a huge difference between recording with average levels at about -18 to -22dBFS versus the peaks at those levels, yet some people recommend the latter because that's what they thought they read.
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by worshiptuned »

"There's a huge difference between recording with average levels at about -18 to -22dBFS versus the peaks at those levels"
Sure, no doubt. Sometimes we don't use the proper terms (as I am just a beginner on these matters) sometimes our explanations are not clear enough and we can be misunderstood as when I said
"As many tutorials say and also the Waves website, some Plugins don't react very well with hot signals...and this is the reason why is not exactly the same thing to lower the fader of the master bus by the mastering engineer."

I meant that it is not the same with this meaning: Surely the master engineer can apply some tricks as a plugin to lower the output.
But I was saying this from the point of view of mixing, I was speaking about the plugins in the mixing process: if I mix too hot and the plugins in the mix are not receiving the signals at an appropriate level the mix is not at his best and the choices at the mix level are already compromised. And the master engineer can lower the gain, but can not fix all the errors of a mix that is not good and lacks clarity because the signals are already too hot and compressed and distorted because the one who mixed already run toward loudness instead toward a good sound and didn't leave sufficient headroom.

" We got 16-bit CDs and they got louder and louder, but all CDs have the same maximum sample peak value of 0dBFS. This means that any loudness that we got was not by approaching 0dBFS."

I have a question here. I didn't check the Cds, I believe you. But for streaming services if happens that if I download a music file from YouTube or other services...I don' t mean amateurish music but top contemporary hits of Ed Sheran, Adele....and I import them in Cubase as a reference track (bad practice I know...we should use lossless files...) with my fader set to 0, ALL the songs have peaks that go above 0dBFS in the red zone....and my explanations were based on this observation

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Re: Mixing Explained Article

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worshiptuned wrote:
Thu Jul 30, 2020 7:28 am
I said
"As many tutorials say and also the Waves website, some Plugins don't react very well with hot signals...and this is the reason why is not exactly the same thing to lower the fader of the master bus by the mastering engineer."

I meant that it is not the same with this meaning: Surely the master engineer can apply some tricks as a plugin to lower the output.
But I was saying this from the point of view of mixing, I was speaking about the plugins in the mixing process:
Ok, well it really looked as if you were talking about mastering..
worshiptuned wrote:
Thu Jul 30, 2020 7:28 am
if I mix too hot and the plugins in the mix are not receiving the signals at an appropriate level the mix is not at his best and the choices at the mix level are already compromised. And the master engineer can lower the gain, but can not fix all the errors of a mix that is not good and lacks clarity because the signals are already too hot and compressed and distorted because the one who mixed already run toward loudness instead toward a good sound and didn't leave sufficient headroom.
But again you have to be clear what you're talking about. If you're literally talking about headroom during mixing then the channels have a tremendous amount of headroom, far higher than we need, because of floating point processing. If you're talking about individual plugins distorting because they're programmed to then that doesn't 'follow' 0dBFS, it 'follows' whatever reference nominal level the programmer has decided on. That's most likely going to be an average level like -18dBFS, not peak level.

And if you're talking about the final output on the master then we're back to talking about what to deliver to the mastering engineer and that's different from the mix. The standard advice to not clip the output always applies.
worshiptuned wrote:
Thu Jul 30, 2020 7:28 am
" We got 16-bit CDs and they got louder and louder, but all CDs have the same maximum sample peak value of 0dBFS. This means that any loudness that we got was not by approaching 0dBFS."

I have a question here. I didn't check the Cds, I believe you. But for streaming services if happens that if I download a music file from YouTube or other services...I don' t mean amateurish music but top contemporary hits of Ed Sheran, Adele....and I import them in Cubase as a reference track (bad practice I know...we should use lossless files...) with my fader set to 0, ALL the songs have peaks that go above 0dBFS in the red zone....and my explanations were based on this observation
Using True Peak metering you can see they all go somewhat above 0dBFS, but sample peak is limited to exactly 0dBFS and can never be higher. That means that in order to get the signal louder you have to do something other than reaching 0dBFS on individual samples. If a super-loud metal master has samples that reach 0dBFS and a master of Adele reaches that same 0dBFS then what creates the difference in loudness isn't those peaks, it's "the rest".

As a matter of fact I'm willing to bet that if you take for example a moderately loud master from say the year 2005, maybe something like a Paul Simon album, and put that up against a super loud metal master, then you can probably lower the metal master quite a bit and it'll still feel (and be) louder than Paul Simon's record, even though the metal album's peaks are now solidly below 0dBFS and Paul Simon's are still peaking higher (sample peaks).

That's because actual loudness isn't determined by peaks but by average.

(PS: Again; lowering all of the audio in a file obviously reduces the loudness of the file, but the loudness of "the mastered music" is in a sense the same. There's a slight distinction.)
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Re: Mixing Explained Article

Post by worshiptuned »

Thanks for your answers
I understand your technical explanations....
I do believe though that most of my sentences were enough clear for the average reader. There is the need to point out things sometimes and sometimes is part of the language that there are ambiguities.
I have clear what I am talking about and the terms I use. I say loud….I know there are many kinds of loudness: momentary loudness….I say peaks…..and I know there are sample peaks….true peaks… You see we misunderstood each other, you were speaking about sample peaks and I was speaking of true peaks…I was not even thinking about what kind of peaks…I was speaking of the levels of the master bus in Cubase, that go above 0dBFS and become red, it seemed to me obvious, but was not obvious for you because we have different mindsets.
today is so hot!!!! Well it is enough clear for me, but then someone says, What do you mean: is a too sunny day, or is the maximum temperature too high or the average temperature?....lol
You dig deep and I have definitely learned new concepts from your distinctions
Just to go back to the main topic….the article is offered here on mixing it’s nice and there are many good insights but I don’t see in it an enough clear explanation of gain staging.
Would be interesting to hear what the author of the article Denis Van der Werde thinks about our discussion

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